Additional Domains/Training

Return Home

Contact Us
MacroCognition LLC

3601 Connecticut Ave NW, #110,
Washington, DC 20008

Additional Domains/Training

We apply the macroCognitive perspective to many domains. We work with organizations to design custom training and capture senior-level expertise. Our specialized scenario-based training method, the ShadowBox, allows participants to see through the eyes of experts and acquire tacit knowledge. We are working with personnel in police and military settings, the petrochemical industry, child protective services, and more.

The Good Strangers program, also known as SSIM
(Strategic Social Interaction Modules)

For the past few years MacroCognition LLC has been part of DARPA's Strategic Social Interaction Modules (SSIM) program, nicknamed The Good Strangers project. The goal of this project is to train military and police to elicit voluntary, rather than coercive compliance, and to build trust rather than resentment. MacroCognition performed cognitive task analysis interviews to identify the most important Good Stranger skills, and is consulting with BBN to apply these lessons to design a beyond-the-state-of-the-art interaction simulation. MacroCognition is also part of a team to develop innovative training methods for becoming a Good Stranger.

Klein, G., Klein, H.A., Lande, B., Borders, J., & Whitacre, J.C. (2015). Police and military as good strangers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88: 231-250.

Klein, H.A., & Klein, G. (2013, May). Cultivating good will amidst hostility. Paper presented at The 11th International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Marseille, France.

Cognitive Task Analysis Workshops
Gary Klein, Ph.D. and his colleagues developed some of the most powerful methods of cognitive task analysis for research with firefighters, tank commanders, military leaders, and approximately a hundred different technical specialties.

Crandall, B., Klein, G., & Hoffman, R. (2006). Working minds: A practioner's guide to cognitive task analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM)
Gary Klein, Ph.D. was one of the founders of the NDM movement, in 1989, and hosted the first two NDM meetings. MacroCognition LLC continues to support NDM meetings, which are now held every two years. The next meeting will be in Bath, England, June 20-23 2017.

Klein, G. (2008). Naturalistic decision making. Human Factors, 50 (3), 456-460.

The ShadowBox method is a training tool that captures tacit knowledge and allows novices to see through the eyes of experts. The ShadowBox method was inspired by research in naturalistic decision making with firefighters, and is now being applied in military settings. Trials are underway to use the ShadowBox method for Knowledge Management with the petrochemical industry, and for low-cost cognitive task analysis. The ShadowBox is also being used to determine and capture expertise on a project with Child Protective Services. In addition, the original paper-and-pencil format of the ShadowBox has been ported to an Android tablet. A beta version of the software has recently been completed. You can learn more about ShadowBox at

Klein, G. & Borders, J. (in press). The shadowbox approach to cognitive skills training. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making.

Klein, Gary, Neil Hintze, and David Saab. (2014). Thinking Inside the Box: The ShadowBox Method for Cognitive Skill Development. Paper presented at the 11th International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM), Marseille, France.

©2006- MacroCognition. All Rights Reserved.